Dlatego za opcje na takie akcje trzeba zapłacić więcej niż za opcje o identycznych parametrach, ale wystawione na akcje firmy, która jest niemrawa i od roku praktycznie stoi w miejscu. Dlatego tak ważne jest, aby nie kupować opcji z wysokim implied volatility, bo one będą traciły na wartości niewiarygodnie szybko, nawet w sytuacji, gdy cena akcji pozostanie niezmieniona. W transakcji na opcjach zazwyczaj chodzi jedynie o to, aby zarobić na ruchu danego instrumentu w górę czy w dół i odsprzedać lub odkupić opcje z zyskiem, ponieważ wartość cena opcji zmienia się na bieżąco razem ze zmianą ceny instrumentu, na który opcja została wystawiona. Dlatego opcje out-of-the-money są o wiele tańsze niż te będące in-the-money. Had quality spread curves twisted or worldwide economic distress been more pronounced the loss could have been much higher. Grecy podpowiedzą, które opcje warto kupić Do wyboru odpowiednich opcji nie wystarczy jednak znajomość samej wartości implied volatility.
Background[ edit ] In Februaryhedge fund insiders such as Boaz Weinstein of Saba Capital Management   became aware that the market in credit default swaps was possibly being affected by aggressive trading activities.
Market-moving trades by the bank's Chief Investment Office had first been uncovered in June by trade journal Creditflux, which reported on anomalies in CDX HY index tranche pricing dynamics caused by Iksil's trading activity.
Byheavy opposing bets to his positions had been made by traders, including another branch of JPMorgan, who purchased the derivatives that JPMorgan was selling in high volume.
This was a derivative which Weinstein had noticed to be losing value in a manner and to a degree which seemed to diverge from market expectations. It turned out that JPMorgan was shorting the index by making huge trades. However, by May, after investors became concerned about the implications of the European financial crisisthe situation reversed and JPMorgan suffered Strategie handlowe CDX. losses.
It occurred when the world's financial markets were in relative calm. Had quality spread curves twisted or worldwide economic distress been more pronounced the loss could have been much higher. It involved more than 1, people across the firm and outside law firm Strategie handlowe CDX.
This unit is reported to have very wide latitude in otherwise unsupervised trading.
The company had been without Strategie handlowe CDX. treasurer for five months during the time of the trades and had a relatively inexperienced executive, Irvin Goldman, in charge of risk management in the CIO. In Congressional testimony it came out that Dimon wanted to be responsible for what information was revealed, and information was withheld from the regulators.
There had been a series of violations of the Sarbanes—Oxley regulations requiring certain protections. The Volcker rule is sometimes referred to as "a modern Glass-Steagall firewall that separates core banking system from higher-risk, hedge fund-style proprietary trading".
The final version of the Volcker Rule was passed on December 10,which was implemented in July